Document Type : Original Article
Department of Medicine, Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Dezful, IR Iran.
Atherosclerosis Research Center, Baqiayatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
Background: Thalassemia is a hematologic and genetic disorder prevalent both in Iran and the world. As these patients receive frequent transfusions, they are exposed to iron overload in different tissues such as the liver and the heart. Vitamin D and magnesium deficiencies have been known as important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. We studied the association between the plasma levels of vitamin D and magnesium and different levels of heart involvement in thalassemia major patients.
Methods: Sampling was performed by the convenience method based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study. Patients’ data, including age, sex, vitamin D plasma levels, magnesium plasma levels, cardiac iron overload based on MRI T2*, echocardiographic information, and electrocardiographic (ECG) information, were collected.
Results: In this study, 43 patients, composed of 20 men (46.5%) and 23 women (53.5%) at a mean age of 31.35±7.03 years were examined. In total, 39.5% and 27/9% of them had abnormal echocardiography and ECG. Maximum cardiac abnormalities observed in echocardiography were related to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (23.3%), right ventricular enlargement (9%), reduced left ventricular ejection fractions (9%), and more-than-mild tricuspid valve regurgitation (9%). Moreover, a reduction in the magnesium plasma level was associated with an increase in the number of cardiac abnormalities in echocardiography significantly (P<0.05). There was a significant relationship between echocardiography and ECG results.
Conclusions: Considering the inverse relationship between the plasma levels of vitamin D and magnesium and cardiac iron overload, we recommend that the plasma level of vitamin D and magnesium be checked periodically in these patients. (Iranian Heart Journal 2021; 22(4): 15-24)