Document Type : Original Article
Rajaei Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Student Research Committee, Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Medicine and Life Sciences, Kings College London, University of London, Strand, London, WC2R 2LS.
Background: Vitamin D plays an essential role in calcium homeostasis and cardiac muscle function, hence the significance of the screening, diagnosing, preventing, and treating of vitamin D deficiency (VDD). In children susceptible to VDD, cardiomyopathy is a likely occurrence. We sought to compare vitamin D status between children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and children with other congenital heart diseases.
Methods: This observational case-control study, conducted from 2018 through 2019 in Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, compared vitamin D status between a case group, consisting of 33 infants with DCM, and a control group, composed of 35 infants with other congenital heart diseases. The serum levels of iron, magnesium, calcium, albumin, parathyroid hormone, and 25(OH)D3 were measured in all the children.
Results: The study population consisted of 68 infants (31 males and 37 females) at a mean age of 64.96±51 days. The DCM group presented with a significantly higher incidence of VDD (27.3%) than the control group (8.6%). Multivariable-adjusted analysis for DCM based on the tertiles of vitamin D levels revealed an odds ratio of 0.25 (95% CI, 0.06 to 1.01) for tertile 3 (>24 nmol/L) compared with an odds ratio of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.24 to 3.30) for tertile 2 (16–24 nmol/L) and tertile 1 (<16 nmol/L) designated as the reference (P=0.05), indicating near statistical significance.
Conclusions: In assessing a child with newly diagnosed DCM or other congenital heart diseases, VDD and electrolyte imbalances should be promptly screened to avert the precipitating decompensation of the cardiovascular function. (Iranian Heart Journal 2022; 23(1): 160-171)