Effects of Total Suspended Particulates on the Chronotropic, Inotropic, and Dromotropic Parameters of the Heart, Blood Pressure, and Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Rats and the Protective Effects of Crocin and Insulin

Document Type : Original Article


1 Abadan Faculty of Medical Sciences, Abadan, IR Iran.

2 Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran.

3 Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, IR Iran.

4 Visiting Lecturer University of Moratuwa and Visiting Lecturer University of Vocational Technology, Sri Lanka.


Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia that results from inadequacies in secreting insulin and/or the action of insulin. Increased exposure to particulate matter at high concentrations is associated with increased mortality in heart diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of insulin and crocin on cardiac electrophysiological parameters, blood pressure, and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats exposed to the total suspended particulate (TSP).
Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n=60) with bodyweight between 200 and 250 g were divided into 10 experimental groups (6 animals per group): control, crocin, diabetic, TSP (5 mg/kg TSP, intratracheal instillation), diabetic-crocin, diabetic-insulin, diabetic-TSP, crocin-TSP, diabetic-TSP-insulin, and diabetic-TSP-crocin. The effects of chronotropic (heart rate), inotropic (QRS voltage), and dromotropic (P-R intervals and QTc intervals) were evaluated with standard bipolar limb lead II. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were recorded with the tail cuff. Antioxidant and lactate dehydrogenase enzymes were also measured.
Results: The diabetic groups and groups exposed to TSP experienced a deleterious effect on cardiac electrophysiological parameters and blood pressure, with a significant decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. These changes were improved with crocin and insulin.
Conclusions: In this work, the protective role of crocin and insulin alone was observed in diabetic groups and groups exposed to TSP by improving the electrophysiological parameters of the heart, blood pressure, and oxidative stress. (Iranian Heart Journal 2022; 23(3): 6-23)


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