The Islamic Republic of Iran is one of the youngest countries in the world, as more than 50% of its population of 70 million is less than 30 years of age. The incidence of cardiovascular diseases has changed dramatically since the Islamic Revolution of Iran. For example, rheumatic heart disease was the most common cardiac disease in the past, while its incidence has decreased significantly in recent years. Coronary heart disease, however, is currently the most common and serious cardiac problem. The incidence of congenital heart disease has remained almost unchanged. Nevertheless, early diagnoses and appropriate treatments have led to better care and prevention of subsequent complications. Risk factors for coronary artery disease are similar to those in other countries. Nonetheless, cigarette smoking is more frequent than hyperlipidemia in our population, according to some studies.